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Anti-seceptogens | The truth you should know about rabies

Views: 0     Author: Diffei Medical     Publish Time: 2023-08-21      Origin: 迪飞医学

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September 28, 2022 is 'World Rabies Day'.The theme of this year's World Rabies Day is 'Rabies: One Health, Zero Deaths'.


Design of promotional banner for World Rabies Day 2022

At present, rabies is still endemic in more than 100 countries and regions around the world, with about 59,000 deaths annually, making it the animal-borne infectious disease with the highest death toll.According to public data from the National Health Commission, the incidence of rabies in my country has been declining year by year.

Number of cases

Pictured: The incidence of rabies in my country is decreasing

(Data source: Overview of the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Epidemic in 2009, 2014, 2019, and 2021)

What is rabies?

Rabies is an animal-borne infectious disease caused by infection with Rabies virus (BABV).Rabies virus is a ribonucleic acid virus, family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus.Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that mainly invades the central nervous system and invades the human body through damaged skin or mucous membranes.The clinical manifestations of rabies virus infection include specific aerophobia, hydrophobia, pharyngeal muscle spasm, progressive paralysis, etc.

rabies virus

Figure rabies virus

How is rabies contracted?

Source of infection:Research shows that almost all mammals can be infected with rabies virus.Under natural conditions, the main susceptible animals include dogs, cats, foxes, raccoons, bats, etc.In countries with serious rabies epidemics such as Asia and Africa, dogs and cats are the most common spreading animals. More than 90% of rabies cases worldwide are caused by dogs infected with the virus.

way for spreading:The rabies virus cannot invade the body through intact skin. The main transmission route of rabies is through bites from sick animals, scratches, or licking of human mucous membranes and damaged skin.

Susceptible groups:40% of rabies deaths occur in children under 15 years of age.Although people of all ages are susceptible, children are playful by nature and often approach dogs without concern for being attacked or without awareness of rabies.Research shows that children may even hide bites for fear of being scolded by their parents and fail to receive timely wound treatment and vaccinations.

How does rabies develop?

The virus multiplies at different rates depending on the severity of the wound, the amount of virus, and individual immunity.The average incubation period for rabies is 2 to 3 months.The incubation period for bites on the head, face, neck and hands is shorter and can be as low as less than 7 days.

After rabies virus invades the human body, the pathogenesis process can be divided into three stages:

1,Reproduction period in local tissues:After the virus invades from a damaged part of the skin or mucous membrane, it can stay briefly in the cells near the wound or proliferate in a small amount, and then invade nearby peripheral nerves;

2. Invasion of the central nervous system:The virus expands centripetally along the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system at a speed of approximately every 3 mm/h. It then multiplies in large numbers in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord, invades the spinal cord, and quickly reaches the brain;

3. Spreading period to various organs:After massive replication in the brain, the virus expands from the central nerve to the peripheral nerves and invades various organs and tissues innervated by the nerves, especially in saliva, tongue taste buds, and olfactory neuroepithelium, where the virus has a large amount.

Once an outbreak of rabies occurs, the disease progresses very rapidly. Patients usually experience respiratory and circulatory failure or suffocation due to pharyngeal muscle spasm within two weeks after the onset of clinical symptoms.

How to prevent rabies?

Rabies is preventable but not curable, and once it develops, the mortality rate is 100%.Therefore, if you are bitten by an animal, you must be vaccinated promptly.A large amount of practice has proven that if you are infected with rabies virus, timely and standardized post-exposure wound treatment, rational use of rabies immune globulin, and full and standardized vaccination of rabies vaccines can effectively prevent the onset of rabies.

To prevent the spread of rabies, we also need to pay attention to vaccinating dogs with canine rabies vaccine and managing stray animals and other sources of infection.In addition, actively mobilizing professional knowledge and tools, raising public awareness of rabies prevention and control through education and publicity, and teaching children how to avoid being bitten by animals are the keys to preventing and controlling rabies.


China Disease Prevention and Control Website


Fisher CR, Streicker DG, Schnell MJ. The spread and evolution of rabies virus: conquering new frontiers. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Apr; 16(4):241-255.

doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2018.11. Epub 2018 Feb 26. PMID: 29479072; PMCID: PMC6899062.

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