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Anti-sensory agents | Take action to defeat meningitis

Views: 0     Author: Diffei Medical     Publish Time: 2023-08-21      Origin: 迪飞医学

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Meningitis 1

The Confederation of Meningitis Organizations (CoMO) designates October 5th every year as 'World Meningitis Day' to popularize knowledge about meningitis and call on more people to pay attention to meningitis patients. , attaching great importance to the prevention of meningitis to achieve the vision of defeating meningitis by 2030.

What is meningitis?

Meningitis is an infectious disease caused mainly by damage to the central nervous system caused by infection by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.The most common sequelae of meningitis include impaired mental status, increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema, and seizures.

Meningitis can be divided into common bacterial, tubercular, viral, fungal, meningeal cancer, etc. according to the cause.Meningitis can be divided into acute and chronic meningitis according to the speed of onset. For example, common bacterial and viral infections are mostly acute, while tuberculous or fungal infections are mostly chronic meningitis.The main clinical manifestations of patients with acute meningitis are fever, headache, and neck and occipital stiffness.

meningitis symptoms

Clinical symptoms of meningitis: fever, neck and pillow stiffness, high fever, fear of bright light, vomiting, joint pain, severe headache, cold hands and feet, drowsiness, rash, epilepsy, etc.

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Pathogenic microorganisms:Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) are the main bacteria that cause acute bacterial meningitis.According to the World Health Organization, acute bacterial meningitis is responsible for more than half of the deaths of meningitis patients worldwide.Other bacteria (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus), viruses (such as enteroviruses and mumps viruses), fungi (especially Cryptococcus), and parasites (such as amoeba ) is also an important pathogenic microorganism that causes meningitis.

Susceptible groups:People of all ages are at risk for meningitis, but young children are at the highest risk.Newborns are at greatest risk from group B streptococci, and young children are at higher risk from meningococci, pneumococci, and haemophilus influenzae.Adolescents and young adults are particularly susceptible to meningococcal disease, while older adults are more susceptible to pneumococcal disease.

way for spreading:Most of the bacteria that cause meningitis, such as meningococci, pneumococci and haemophilus influenzae, are found in the human nose and throat and are spread from person to person through respiratory droplets or throat secretions.

meningitis treatment

Meningitis progresses rapidly and can easily be life-threatening. Early diagnosis and precise treatment are key.The treatment of meningitis mainly includes the treatment of pathogenic microorganisms, symptomatic treatment and nutritional support treatment.

The treatment of meningitis varies depending on the pathogen of infection. Common pathogenic microbial treatments include antiviral, antibacterial, antituberculosis, antifungal, and antiparasitic treatments.In addition to treating pathogenic microorganisms, symptomatic treatment is also required, such as treating high fever, controlling epileptic seizures, reducing intracranial pressure, and reducing cerebral edema.Nutritional support treatment includes maintaining the homeostasis of the body's internal environment, strengthening enteral and parenteral nutrition, and appropriate nursing care.

Diagnostic techniques for meningitis

Early identification, timely and correct treatment, and long-term follow-up intervention after the disease are effective means to improve the survival rate of meningitis patients and reduce the disability (death) rate.However, the current traditional etiological diagnosis methods for encephalitis still have some limitations, such as the low positive rate of clinical culture and the limited pathogen spectrum detected by traditional molecular detection methods. For example, multiplex PCR technology also has the pathogen spectrum limited to some common The issue of causative pathogens cannot cover clinical needs.

In recent years, mNGS technology has been widely used in the fields of respiratory tract, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections.In 2014, the world's first case of central nervous system infection diagnosed by mNGS technology was reported in the top international authoritative medical journal 'The New England Journal of Medicine'.A patient who had suffered from recurring headaches and fever for nearly a year had undergone 38 different diagnostic tests (from serology to culture and biopsy), but the causative pathogen was still not clear.After the mNGS test was used to confirm that the patient was infected with Leptospira, targeted penicillin treatment was given, and the patient was finally relieved.

meningitis cases

Figure 1: A case of Leptospira infection in the central nervous system identified through mNGS technology

Meningitis prevention

Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent meningitis and can greatly reduce the chance of getting meningitis.In daily life, susceptible people should pay special attention to improving their own immunity, strengthening hygiene awareness, maintaining indoor air circulation, and disinfecting and sterilizing frequently.Meningitis is very contagious and close contact with people who have the disease should be avoided as much as possible.


Currently, meningitis remains a serious challenge to global public health.The global roadmap 'Defeat Meningitis by 2030' focuses diagnostic goals on rapid diagnosis of meningitis.The emergence of mNGS has made a major technical breakthrough in the identification of the causative agent of infectious meningitis.Research shows that using mNGS technology can increase the diagnosis rate of meningitis pathogens by about 25%-30%.The door to precision medicine for meningitis is opening. Let us take action to defeat Defeat Meningitis!



Wilson, MR, Naccache, SN, Samayoa, E., Biagtan, M., Bashir, H., Yu, G., Salamat, SM, Somasekar, S., Federman, S., Miller, S., Sokolic, R ., Garabedian, E., Candotti, F., Buckley, RH, Reed, KD, Meyer, TL, Seroogy, CM, Galloway, R., Henderson, SL, Gern, JE, … Chiu, CY (2014). Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing. The New England journal of medicine, 370(25), 2408–2417.

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